The ENP was created in 2007 as a Réseau Thématique de Recherche Avancée ('Priority Thematic Research Field') by the French Ministry fo Higher Education and Research.

The ENP is a Scientific Foundation, whose founders are three national research institutions: Inserm, CNRS and CEA, and three universities: Université Pierre et Marie Curie and Université Paris-Sud, joined in 2008 by the Université Paris Descartes.

Closing of the ENP in September 2020. Creation of the " Fondation des Neurosciences de Paris" under the aegis of the Fondation Partenariale Sorbonne Université.