The ENP was created in 2007 as a Réseau Thématique de Recherche Avancée ('Priority Thematic Research Field') by the French Ministry fo Higher Education and Research.

The ENP is a Scientific  Foundation, whose founders are three national research institutions: Inserm, CNRS and CEA, and three universities: Université Pierre et Marie Curie and Université Paris-Sud, joined in 2008 by the Université Paris Descartes.

It also gathers prestigious associates that participate to the advances of neuroscience.